(born August 22, 1944) is an Americanbillionairehedge fund manager, activist, investor,vulture capitalist, and philanthropist.Hishedge fundElliott Management Corporation(EMC)specializes indistressed debtacquisitions.Singer is also the founder and CEO of NML Capital Limited, aCayman Islands-based offshore unit of Elliott Management Corporation.

Singers philanthropic activities include financial support forLGBTQ rights.101112He has provided funding to theManhattan Institute for Policy Research,13is a strong opponent of raising taxes for the wealthiest 1% of taxpayers and opposes aspects of theDodd-Frank Act.13Singer is active inRepublican Partypolitics and Singer and others affiliated with Elliott Management are collectively the top source of contributions to theNational Republican Senatorial Committee.14

Fortunemagazine described Singer as one of the smartest and toughest money managers in the hedge fund industry.13A number of sources have branded him avulture capitalist, largely on account of his role at EMC, which has been called avulture fund.4151617The Independenthas described him as a pioneer in the business of buying up sovereign bonds on the cheap, and then going after countries for unpaid debts.8In 1996 Singer began using the strategy of purchasingsovereign debtfrom nations in or near defaultsuch asArgentina,13181920andPeru82122through his NML Capital Limited8andCongo-Brazzavillethrough Kensington International Inc.17Singers practice of purchasingdistressed debtfromcompaniesandsovereign statesand pursuing full payment through the courts has led to criticism.2023Singer and EMC defend their model4as a fight against charlatans who refuse to play by the markets rules,18and supporters of the practice have said it help[s] keepkleptocraticgovernments in check.24

Singer was born in 1944, and grew up inTeaneck, New Jerseyin aJewishfamily,252627one of three children of a Manhattan pharmacist and a homemaker.13He obtained his B.S. in psychology from theUniversity of Rochesterin 196628and a J.D. fromHarvard Law Schoolin 1969.1329In 1974 Singer went to work as an attorney in the real estate division of the investment bankDonaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette.1329

In 1977, with aconvertible arbitragewinning formula, Singer left law to create his own investment company. He founded thewith US$1.3 million in seed capital from various friends and family members.1113According toThe Telegraphin 2011, Elliott is one of the oldest hedge funds onWall Street.30Singer is also the founder and CEO of NML Capital Limited, aCayman Islands-based offshore unit of Elliott Management Corporation.8

According toFortune,Elliott has been involved in most of the big post-crashrestructurings.13In 2009The Guardianreported that Singer through a brilliantly complex financial manoeuvre, took control of Delphi Automotive, the sole supplier of most of the auto parts needed byGeneral MotorsandChrysler. Ultimately, the US Treasury paid Elliott Management $12.9 billion in cash and subsidies from the US Treasurys auto bailout fund.31In December 2011 Elliott Associates suedVietnams state-owned shipbuilderVinashinin the UK for defaulting the year before on a US$600 million syndicated loan.32

As of February 2014 Elliott controlled $23bn (19bn) of funds and was the ninth largest investor on Wall Street.33

In June 2015 Elliott was an activeactivist investorwithCitrix Systems, pushing for various changes.34In May 2014 theFrench Financial Markets Regulatorfined Elliott a record €14 million ($22 million) for insider trading, a ruling which the company appealed.35In a long-standing dispute between Singer and members of theLee familyover a merger betweenSamsungandCheil Industries, in 2015 Samsung published numerous cartoons of Singer as anon its corporate website. The cartoons were denounced by Singer and others asantisemitic.25Samsung responded several days later denouncing antisemitism,25and pulled the images from their website.36

Forbesrated Singers net worth as $2.1 billion in 20154152537and $2.2 billion in 2016.9As of November 2015Elliott Management Corporationoversees Elliott Associates and Elliott International Limited, which together have more than $27 billion in assets under management in a multi-strategy fund.1137The corporation includes aprivate equitydivision.38Termed a specialist in activism in technology companies by theWall Street Journalin June 2015,34Elliott Managements varied portfolio also includes a prominent tech component.38The company pursued more than 40 campaigns aimed at tech companies between 2004 and 2015, according toReuters.38in 2018, Elliott Management took control of ItalianfootballclubA.C. Milan.39

In 1996 Elliott bought defaultedPeruviandebt for $11.4 million.22Elliott won a $58 million judgment18and Peru had to repay the sum in full under thepari passu rule.21When former president of PeruAlberto Fujimoriwas attempting to flee the country due tohuman rights abuses and corruption, Singer confiscated his jet and offered to let him leave the country in exchange for the $58 million payment from the treasury. Fujimori accepted.194032In the 1990s the Kensington International division of EMC purchased US$30 million (18m) of Congolese sovereign debt… allegedly for less than $20m. Kensington subsequently spent years trying to be paid in full through the courts.16In 2008 Kensington and the Republic of Congo settled for an undisclosed amount.32

AfterArgentina defaulted on its debt in 2002, the Elliott-owned company NML Capital Limited refused to accept the Argentine offer to pay less than 30 cents per dollar of debt.13Elliott sued Argentina for the debts value,41and the lower UK courts found that Argentina had state immunity. Elliott successfully appealed the case to theUK Supreme Court, which ruled that Elliott had the right to attempt to seize Argentine property in the United Kingdom, and on October 2, 2012, Singer arranged for aGhanaian Courtorder to detain an Argentine naval vessel in a Ghanaian port in an effort to force Argentina to pay the debt, but was rebuffed when the seizure was barred by theInternational Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.424344454647In February 2013 the U.S. appeals court heard Argentinas appeal in the case of its default and debt to NML.48In March 2013 Argentina offered a new plan,49which was dismissed first by the lower courts and then theUnited States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuiton August 23, 2013, and then again in June 2014 in theU.S. Supreme Court.5051In March 2014 NML Capital unsuccessfully attempted to satisfy court awards by suingSpaceX, seeking the rights to two satellite-launch contracts bought by Argentina valued at $113 million.18:252535455In early 2016 US courts ruled that Argentina must make full payments to holdout bondholders by February 29.56In February 2016 Argentina reached an agreement with Singer.5758596061

According toFortune, Singer focused from early times on distressed assets, buying up bankrupt firms debt and acquiring a reputation for strong-arming his way to profit.13Fortunenoted in 2012 that losses sustained early in Singers career led to a risk aversion that still guides his investing today. Thanks to his caution, by 2012 Elliott had only two down years since 1977, rising 4.2% in 2011, a year in which most hedge funds lost money.13Describing him as one of the smartest and toughest money managers in the business, the article further notes that his firm is so influential that fear of its tactics helped shape the current2012 Greek debt restructuring.13

Elliott was termed byThe Independentas a pioneer in the business of buying up sovereign bonds on the cheap, and then going after countries for unpaid debts.8Singer describes his business model as a fight against charlatans who refuse to play by the markets rules,18and in 2013 Singer toldAlpha Magazinethat weve made the point over and over again that sovereigns that could pay their debts and choose not to may be attempting to save some money but are harming their people and their economies by making investing in their countries more risky and more problematic and by discouraging foreign investment.4In response,The Washington Postwrote in 2014 that in Singers view, he isnt just forcing indebted companies and countries to pay up. Hes trying to create a world where distressed debt doesnt exist. Depending on your own views, that makes Singer anactivist investor, or a vulture capitalist.4

Singer signedThe Giving Pledge, which signals a commitment by individuals to donate more than half of their wealth within their lifetime to address societys most difficult moral and economic challenges.10

Singer founded the Paul E. Singer Family Foundation, which supports charitable causes including theHarvard Graduate School of EducationSinger Prize for Excellence in Secondary Teaching,62VH1 Save The Music Foundation,63theFood Bank For New York CityNational Gay and Lesbian Task ForceAction Fund, the American Unity Fund, theNew York City Police Foundation6465and .1466He and The Paul E. Singer Family Foundation are behind The Philos Project, a pro-Israel Christian organization.67In 2016, Singer partnered with the Museum of the Bible to fund Passages Israel, a program to take college students to Israel.68He is a longtime supporter of hawkish pro-Israel causes and a major funder for the conservative think tankFoundation for Defense of Democracies.69In November 2018, after thePittsburgh synagogue shooting, the Paul E. Singer Family Foundation announced it would donate $1 million to upgrade security at Jewish institutions in New York. The funds will be gifted to theUnited Jewish Appeal Federation of New York, which will then distribute the money as needed to individual synagogues, day schools, and community centers to cover safety reviews and enhanced precautions.70

Singer also serves on the Board of Fellows ofHarvard Medical Schooland the board of directors ofCommentary Magazine.7172

Singer is an active participant inRepublican Partypolitics.73According toThe New York Times, he supports like-minded candidates who often share his distaste for what they view as governmental over-meddling in the financial industry.74Singer has contributed more than $1 million to the political efforts of theKoch brothers.7576In 2014, Singer led a group of major Republican donors to form the American Opportunity Alliance, a group that brings together wealthy Republican donors who share Singers support for LGBTQ rights, immigration reform and Israel.77During the2016 Presidential election campaignSinger supportedMarco Rubioand donated a million dollars in March to theOur Principles PAC, a PAC attempting to derailDonald Trumps election campaign.78798081He also started the American Unity PA.82He supported Trumps inaugural committee with $1 million together with 25 other billionaires.83

Singer was a major contributor toGeorge W. Bushs presidential campaigns.1184On March 14, 2008, Singer hosted aRepublican National Committeeluncheon in his home for 70 guests that raised $1.4 million for Bush.858687Bush appointed Singer to serve on the Honorary Delegation to accompany him toJerusalemfor the celebration of the 60th anniversary of theState of Israelin May 2008.88

In 2007 Singer was one ofRudolph Giulianis most important fundraisers in Giulianis bid for the Republican presidential nomination.1189In 2007, Singer led a financial industry fund-raising effort for Giuliani, first as regional finance chair and later as senior policy adviser.9091Singer lent Giuliani his private jet.9192That same year, Singer at $175,000 was the sole contributor to a campaign to support a petition drive for a proposedCalifornia initiativeto apportion the states 55electoral votesby congressional district. At least 19 of the states 53 congressional districts were expected to vote for a GOP presidential candidate, enough to change the national results in a close election.8993

Singer was one of the largest donors of the2010 midterm election cycle, contributing more than $4 million to support Republican candidates.86

In 2011 Singer donated $1 million toRestore Our Future, aSuper PACcreated to supportMitt Romneyin the2012 U.S. Presidential election.94In 2013, Singer gave $100,000 to theClub for Growth, a 501(c)4 organization that supports Tea Party candidates.95He has also donated millions of dollars to organizations that advocate for a strong military and for supportingIsrael.969798

In 2012 Singer founded the nonprofit Start-up Nation Central, inspired by the publication of the 2009New York TimesbestsellerStart-Up Nation. AnNGO, Start-up Nation Central aims to develop collaboration between Israels tech sector, outside investors and innovators.99100Bloomberghas described it as a foreign ministry for Israels tech industry. Since 2012 Singer has invested around $20 million into it.101Start-Up Nation Central is based inTel Aviv.102

Singer is a member of theCommittee on Capital Markets Regulation, a non-governmental, nonpartisan research organization.103He is chairman of the board of trustees for theManhattan Institute for Policy Research, aconservativethink tank in New York City,104and on the board of directors of theRepublican Jewish Coalition, a political lobbying group in the United States that promotes Jewish Republicans.63He also served on the board of directors for theJewish Institute for National Security Affairs.105

In 2016 Singer invested $500,000 in a PAC supporting John Faso, a Congressional candidate inNew Yorks 19th congressional districtopposing progressive candidate and Wall Street criticZephyr Teachout. Teachout responded to the donation by challenging Singer to come to the district and debate her.106

As well as contributing to private initiatives, Singer also actively seeks to persuade other Republicans to support gay marriage.11107He has joined other Wall Street executives in support ofLGBTequality and stated that same-sex marriage promotes family stability and that in a time when the institution of marriage in America has utterly collapsed, the fact that gay couples want to marry is kind of a lovely thing and a cool thing and a wonderful thing.108109

Singer, whose son Andrew married his husband Corey Morris in a same-sex marriage inMassachusettsin 2009, has also financially supported the legalization ofgay marriage in New York110andMaryland.111In 2011 this advocacy included supporting legislation allowingsame-sex marriage in the state of New York.112

In 2012 Singer provided $1 million to start aPolitical Action Committeenamed American Unity PAC. According to theNew York Times, the PACs sole mission will be to encourage Republican candidates to support same-sex marriage, in part by helping them to feel financially shielded from any blowback from well-funded groups that oppose it.113In 2014 Singer urged Republicans to pass theEmployment Non-Discrimination Act. This bill requires workplace protections to extend to the LGBT community.114As of June 2014 Singer had donated an estimated $10 million to the gay rights movement.11

In 2015 Singer,Tim GillandDaniel Loebhelped fund Freedom For All Americans to promoteLGBT issuesin states and local communities in the United States.115non-primary source needed

According to an October 27, 2017, article inThe New York Times, the initial sponsor of anti-Trump opposition research conducted by the controversial Washington D.C. firm Fusion GPS was The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative political journalism website that is funded in large part by Singer.116

Singer has written columns in theWall Street Journal.71In 2009 he wrote Free-Marketeers Should Welcome Some Regulation, a column in which he argued that Its true that monetary policy was too lax for too long, and the government encouraged lending to people who were unlikely to repay their loans. But this crisis was primarily caused by managements and individuals throughout the financial system who exercised extremely poor judgement. The private sector, not the public sector, is where the biggest mistakes were made.117Among other topics, he has written against raising taxes for the wealthiest taxpayers (the 1%) and aspects of theDodd-Frank Act.13

At a September 2006 financial conference in New York City, Singer delivered a speech called Complexity Made Simple, advising that the purchase ofcollateralized debt obligations(CDOs) was a serious mistake, and anticipating the downturn of the housing market by nearly a year before the $770 billion taxpayer-funded bailout.29

Hedge fund managerJim Chanossaid in an August 2009 radio interview that he and Singer had met withG7finance ministers in 2007 to warn them that theglobal financial systemwas increasingly unstable and approaching a catastrophe, with banks on the verge of sinking the global economy. The pair argued that decisive action was called for, but Chanos claims they were met with indifference.118

In 2015 Singer was 327th on theForbes 400list of richest Americans, 1006th among the worlds billionaires, 350th of American billionaires, and the 16th highest earning hedge fund manager.2537Singer has been divorced since 1996. He has two sons, Andrew and Gordon.119He lives on New York CitysUpper West Sideand has a house inAspen, Colorado.13

Singer began studying classical piano at the age of 10, and forms part of a family band, together with one of his sons on guitar, the other on drums, and his son-in-law onsaxophone. He enjoysLed Zeppelinand has played onstage withMeat Loaf.13He is a fan ofArsenal F.C.11

50 Most Influential (Bloomberg Markets ranking)

Guttman, Nathan (February 2, 2016). Mega-donor Paul Singer Gives Sheldon Adelson a Run for His Money. Haaretz.

Johnson, Chris (October 31, 2015).Major pro-LGBT Republican donor backs Rubio. Washington Blade

Fuller, Jaime (April 4, et the wealthy donor whos trying to get Republicans to support gay marriage.

Elliott Management Corporation Company Profile. Yahoo! Finance

Corporate Power, Oligopolies, and the Crisis of the State

Moyer, Liz.Elliott Management Takes 11% Stake in Cabelas.

Kumar, Nikhil (November 23, 2012).The vulture capitalist who devoured Peru and now threatens Argentina; Could Paul Singer destroy another economy?.

Fuller, Jaime.Meet the wealthy donor whos trying to get Republicans to support gay marriage.

Foley, Stephen.Paul Singer, the hedge fund holdout.

Johnson, Chris.Major pro-LGBT Republican donor backs Rubio.

Celarier, Michelle (March 26, 2012).Mitt Romneys hedge fund kingmaker. CNN –

Eric Lichtblau (August 27, 2010).Financiers Largess Shows G.O.P.s Wall St. Support.

Palast, Greg; OKane, Maggie; Madlena, Chavala (November 15, 2011).Vulture funds await Jersey decision on poor countries debts.

Armitage, Jim.Can you make an ethical case for vulture funds?.

Sheehan, Michael (November 15, 2011).Vulture funds the key players.

Abelson, Max; Porzecanski, Katia (August 7, 2014).Paul Singer Will Make Argentina PayBloomberg News

Palast, Greg.The Vulture: Chewing Argentinas Living Corpse.

Kelly, Kate (September 24, 2014).Kyle Bass big on Argentina; rips immoral competitors. CNBC

States, Debt, and Power: Saints and Sinners in European History and Integration

International Business Law: Cases and Materials

. Van Rye Publishing, LLC. pp.291.ISBN

Spat between Samsung and NYC Hedge Fund takes nasty detour into Jew-baiting, The Observer (07/2015)

Isabella Steger (December 12, 2011).Hedge Fund Elliott Associates Takes Vietnam to Court.

Kurson, Ken.Spat Between Samsung and NYC Hedge Fund Takes Nasty Detour Into Jew-Baiting.

Kampeas, Ron.Jewish, Republican, pro-gay rights.

Guttman, Nathan.Paul Singer, the GOPs Anti-Adelson, Makes His Move,

, February 2, 2016. Accessed August 19, 2017. Singer grew up in Teaneck, New Jersey, one of three children in a Jewish family.

Kambiz Foroohar (February 2008). The Opportunist.

Ebrahimi, Helia; Blackden, Richard.Paul Singers Elliott Management takes the fight to National Express.

Palast, Greg (August 7, 2014).How Barack Obama could end the Argentina debt crisis.

Steger, Isabella (December 12, 2011).Hedge Fund Elliott Associates Takes Vietnam to Court.

Wall Street planning assault on UK. The Telegraph. February 8, 2014

BENOIT, DAVID; BEILFUSS, LISA.Elliott Management Pushes for Change at Citrix.

Tonnelier, Audrey (July 28, 2014).Elliott, le fonds vautour qui fait trembler lArgentine.

Smith, Geoffrey (July 17, 2015).Vitriol pays off as Samsung wins key merger vote against Singer.

. Archived fromthe originalon November 25, 2015

Flaherty, Michael.EMC-Dell talks highlight Elliotts clout across tech sector. Reuters

Hedge fund Elliott takes control of Italian soccer club AC Milan.

Fujimori paid and the Vulture Funds gave him the plane to flee from Peru, said Toussaint. Telam. September 30, 2014

Guardian (November 15, 2011).Vulture funds the key players.

Lopez, Linette (December 21, 2012).Hedge Fund Billionaire Paul Singer May Have To Pay For His Brief Stint As A Pirate. Business Insider

. Seaforth Publishing. pp.39.ISBN

Fontevecchia, Agustino (October 5, 2012).The Real Story Of How A Hedge Fund Detained A Vessel In Ghana And Even Went For Argentinas Air Force One

Lopez, Linette (November 13, 2012).Argentinas President Is Making Great Political Theater Out Of Paul Singer Seizing The Countrys Naval Ship.

BBC, Kaja.Ghana told to free Argentine ship Libertad by UN court. BBC

Ed Stocker,Argentina welcomes home ship held in Ghana by US vulture fund,

Raymond, Nate (April 2, 2013).UPDATE 2-US court demands Argentine bondholders address pay plan. Reuters

Warren, Michael.Argentina wants to pay debts with cash & bonds.

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS, FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT (August 23, 2013).12-105(L) NML Capital, Ltd. v. Republic of Argentina

Romig, Shane (March 25, 2014).Argentina Creditor Takes Debt Battle to Space.

Lopez, Linette (July 30, 2014).Paul Singer Doesnt Understand Why Were So Obsessed With His Little Argentina Investment.

Singer sued Elon Musks Space X for a ride Argentina had purchased as collateral for the countrys debt.

Salvatore, Cara (March 5, 2015).NML Capital Loses Bid For Argentina Space ContractsLaw360

Stevenson, Alexandra (March 24, 2016).Hedge Funds Dealt Setback as U.S. Sides With Argentina on Defaulted Bonds.

Argentina reaches $4.65bn deal with holdouts.

Daniel Pollack: El acuerdo se termina si el pago no se hace antes del 14 de abril

Rafael Mathus Corte de Nueva York confirm la orden de Thomas Griesa para que la Argentina salga del defaultThe Court of New York confirmed the order of Thomas Griesa for Argentina to leave the default.

US court ruling allows Argentina bond sale to proceed. Financial Times. April 13, 2016

Bob Van Voris (April 13, 2016).Argentina Wins Court Ruling Letting Bond Sale Proceed.

Stories Tagged Singer Prize Excellence Secondary Teaching. Harvard Graduate School of Education

Adeniji, Ade.Four Things to Know About Paul Singers New York City Philanthropy.

Foley, Stephen.Paul Singer on how charity meets politics.

The Paul E. Singer Foundation Donates $25,000 to MarineParents.com, Inc.™. Marine Parents

The Jewish Billionaire Behind a New Christian Anti-Iran Group. March 6, 2015

Singer Foundation will give $1M to secure NYC Jewish sites. November 6, 2018.

Paul Singer (March 23, 2010). The Dodd bill and U.S. Competitiveness.

Dugan, Ianthe Jeanne; Brody Mullins (August 27, 2012).Wall Streets Singer Makes His Influence Felt.

LICHTBLAU, ERIC.Financiers Largess Shows G.O.P.s Wall St. Support.

Vogel, Kenneth (July 27, 2015).Koch brothers summon Bush, Cruz, Walker, Rubio to SoCal confab. Politico

La Roche, Julia (September 6, 2011).Check Out All Of The Wall Streeters Who Donated More Than A Million Dollars To The Koch Brothers This Year. Business Insider

Burns, Alexander; Vogel, Kenneth (February 18, 2014).Exclusive: Mega-donors plan GOP war council. Politico

McCormack, Raymond (March 8, 2016).Our Principles PAC.

Our Principles SuperPAC Spreads Anti-Donald Trump Message.

Cassidy, John (March 3, 2016).The Problem with the Never Trump Movement. New Yorker

Haberman, Maggie; Confessore, Nicholas (October 30, 2015).Paul Singer, Influential Billionaire, Throws Support to Marco Rubio for President.

Meet the billionaire hedge fund manager quietly shaping the GOP gay marriage debate.

Alexander, Dan.More Than 25 Billionaires Poured Millions Into Trumps Inaugural Committee.

Hedge Fund Chiefs, With Cash, Join Political Fray.

Kamen, Al (March 19, 2008).Singer Was Bushs Mystery Dinner Host. No, Not That Singer.

Mosk, Matthew (August 16, 2011).Mitt Romney Cash Invested With GOP WhaleABC News

Katz, Celeste (January 5, 2009). President Bushs photo op with Robert Toussie was at home of city GOPer.

Berman, Ari (October 11, 2007).Rudys Bird of Prey; Giulianis conservative kingmaker knows all about the ugly side of Third World debt. He invented it.

Rosen, David S.Romney Attracts More of Bushs Top Donors Than Rivals (Update2).

Cooper, Michael; Wayne, Leslie (November 22, 2007).Publicity-Shy Giuliani Backer Is Thrust Into Spotlight.

Stone, Peter (September 2013).This Vulture-Fund Billionaire Is the GOPs Go-To Guy on Wall Street; Meet the hard-charging, warship-seizing hedge fund mogul who has become congressional Republicans most powerful fundraiser.

Andrew Malcolm,Giuliani fundraiser was mystery initiative backer,

Schedule A Itemized Receipts Committee: RESTORE OUR FUTURE, INCFederal Election Commission. Archived fromthe originalon February 1, 2012

Yang, Jia (October 11, 2013).Heres who pays the bills for Ted Cruzs crusade.

THOMAS, LANDON.Hedge Fund Chiefs, With Cash, Join Political Fray.

Clifton, Eli (April 7, 2014).GOP ProGay Marriage Funders Other Agenda: Bombing Iran.

Blumenthal, Paul (April 23, 2014).Wall Street, War Hawks Fund Challenger To Only Anti-War, Anti-Wall Street Republican.

Shamah, David.Nonprofit connects Israel tech firms with investors.

Israeli start-up incubator appoints new general manager – Business & Innovation – Jerusalem Post.

Paul Singer Embraces Startup Nation in Battle for Israel Economy.

CTech (March 11, 2019).AI Companies Accounted for 37% of Investment in Israeli Tech Companies in 2018.

Members. Committee on Capital Markets Regulation

Fortunes of Change: The Rise of the Liberal Rich and the Remaking of America

. John Wiley & Sons. pp.272.ISBN

Carter, Zach (August 15, 2016).This Democrat Isnt Challenging Her Opponent To A Debate. Shes Challenging A Donor To His Super PAC via Huff Post.

Keith, Tamara.SuperDonor Backs Romney And Gay MarriageNew Hampshire Public Radio

Out on the Street Summit to Spotlight LGBT Employee Issues LGBT Employees. Businessnewsdaily.com. April 25, 2012

Bruni, Frank (June 9, 2012).The G.O.P.s Gay Trajectory.

Nicholas Confessore and Michael Barbaro (May 14, 2011).Donors to GOP are backing gay marriage push.

BOLCER, JULIE.Republican Donor Paul Singer Gives $250,000 to Maryland Marriage Campaign.

Barbaro, Michael (June 25, 2011).The Road to Gay Marriage in New York.

Bruni, Frank (June 9, 2012).The G.O.P.s Gay Trajectory.

Palmer, Anna (April 9, 2014).Billionaires push Republicans on gay rights bill.

Polaski, Adam (June 8, 2015).Freedom For All Americans. Freedom For All Americans

Vogel, Kenneth P.; Haberman, Maggie (October 27, 2017).Conservative Website First Funded Anti-Trump Research by Firm That Later Produced Dossier.

Mr. Singer initially supported Senator Marco Rubios campaign for the Republican presidential nomination. But after Mr. Rubio dropped out of the race, Mr. Singer spearheaded an effort to block Mr. Trump from winning the presidential nomination, drawing Mr. Trumps ire.

Singer, Paul (April 3, 2009).Free-Marketeers Should Welcome Some Regulation.

Johnson, Rob; Lynn Parramore (September 1, 2009).Jim Chanos Warned Brown, Geithner, and Others about Coming Financial Crash in 2007.

Ellis, Blake (May 19, 2014).Wall Street CEOs open up about their gay sons. CNN

American chief executives of financial services companies

Articles with Spanish-language external links

Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from February 2017

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