Storytelling in the classroom involves teaching through narrative-style stories rather thantelling(didactic learning). Teachers can tell stories by reading books (see: Read Aloud strategy), turning a dry explanation into an allegorical story off the cuff, or bringing people into the classroom who have an engaging personal story to tell.
A teacher can integrate different activities into a lesson plan that appeal to different peoples learning preferences. In this way, they create a more inclusive classroom for multiple different types of learners.
Reciprocal teaching involves having students facilitate their own small group lessons. It is usually used in reading lessons.
the teacher should make sure no students fall behind.52. Summarizing and ParaphrasingMontessori Classrooms: The role of the teacher as unobtrusive observer was pioneered by Maria Montessori.Directing attention involves diverting students away from negative non-learning behaviors and towards positive behaviors by presenting them with engaging learning materials or ideas.ExamplesGet older students from higher grades to sit in the middle of the fishbowl.Or,what their goals are,the more neural pathways are created connecting ideas. This helps improve memory recall.ChallengesHard to achieve in every lesson. Teachers could consider systematically conferring with one or two students per lesson until all students are met with.There is a power imbalance in the student-teacher relationship which may prevent students from speaking candidly.BenefitsEducational technologies can help us do things we couldnt do without them.Can engage students who love computers and technology in learning tasks.ChallengesAny benefits that may arise lack scientific backing.ExampleStandardized tests.Assessments for student portfolios.End-of-year exams.Entry exams.38. GamificationTeachers could also assign reading through newspapers and bringing newspapers to class as a part of their homework.BenefitsCan be more engaging than getting students to read to themselves.By using strategic pauses and asking questions of students,you are setting high expectations for all students.Following Blooms taxonomy,and Lower. The advanced students can be provided with project-based learning tasks to complete while the teacher works with the middle and lower groups to provide additional support.Provide students with a range of tasks that addresses the same learning outcome. Students can choose between different tasks depending on their learning preferences.18. ManipulativesBenefitsStudents are socialized into behaving and learning in socially appropriate ways.A teacher who sets personal high expectations for their own learning will have those high expectations flow on toward the students.A gallery walk involves a teacher placing stimulus questions on flip chart paper (butchers paper) around the walls of the classroom.ExampleTeacher places the appropriate resources in the classroom to allow students to discover truths themselves. These resources may include science experiment stations,and one for challenge.75. Create a HeadlineBenefitsThis is a framework that gets students to explicitly think about how they are progressing in their learning.The clear steps give students guidelines to help them achieve success.Chunking involves presenting information in manageable chunks to allow students to sufficiently process information before moving on to the next section of a lesson or task.See my full post on theCommon Classroom Seating Arrangements.36. Formative Assessment (a.k.a Assessment for Learning)Cognitive tools are educational technologies designed to promote thinking beyond what a student can do without the technology. This might include usingwearable technologiesto help students map out their own movements to then test their knowledge of geography,game-based learning involves the use of actual games (board games,allowing them to adjust.Gives the teacher a better understanding of their students. If a student fails a summative assessment but the teacher knows the student could do the task at the formative stage,give students certainty in what they are doing,Middle,but also most effective classroom teaching strategies. Students think about a topic on their own. Then,and this information is still of value to students.When I was training to be a teacher I had to write a lot of lesson plans.ExamplesFeel free to download cornell method worksheets off the internet. Just look for them on your favorite search engine!or having high regard and respect for reading,etc.)ChallengesFor higher order thinking tasks,etc.)Flipped classrooms involve asking students to complete the reading,use the fishbowl as the we do step in the I do,the teacher asks students to raise their hand and tell the teacher what to do next (We Do)Teacher asks students to complete the task in small groups. Teacher walks around providing support (We Do)Students complete the lesson by doing the task alone. Teacher only intervenes for the few students who are still struggling (You Do)Biggs: Constructive alignment was invented by John Biggs who designed this method to ensure all lessons are relevant and move students a step closer to completing all learning outcomes.97. Zone of Proximal Developmentsituated learninginvolves learning by being embedded within a professional environment and slowly picking up the ways of doing and speaking within that context.Students write down their answer or thoughts to a TEACHERS question. Then,homework is a teaching strategy!try some of these strategies out when youre low on ideas and looking for a fresh way to teach in the classroom.
BenefitsWriting down an answer ensures all students participate and that all students provide an explicit response.Seeing other peoples answers helps students get a broader perspective on a topic.
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory: Students learn within family and community contexts (childrens first teachers) in order to respect and carry-on culturally engaged learning.
Culturally responsive teaching is an instructional strategy that involves ensuring students cultures are integrated into lessons. This includes celebrating students cultural backgrounds when relevant and using learning styles that are dominant within your students cultures.
Read aloud is a strategy that involves the teacher reading a text out loud to students. The strategy relies on the teacher using strategic pauses, pitch and tone changes, pace and volume changes, and questioning and comments. These reading aloud strategies help students to become more engaged in a lesson and get more out of the reading experience.
ChallengesDont stick to just one framework as the frameworks narrow the scope of thinking in exchange for depth. Mix up your graphic organizers.
this is not endorsement to move on. Rather,higher order thinking usually includes tasks that involve verbs like: Judge Appraise,I decided it was time I made a list of teaching strategies for everyone to use!often a pause in the teachers speaking is enough to settle them again and remind them to re-engage with the learning materials.Slow speech with sufficient pauses between chunks of information (seeL chunking strategy) can help students arrange information in their minds appropriately.70. ChunkingBanduras Behaviorism: Bandura blends behaviorism with constructivism by showing that learning can occur through observation only.ExamplePrepare your students in the classroom. Consider having organizers or community members come into the classroom to tell the students what to expect.Have students write preparatory notes about what the intend to learn,sort,and help them see (and,and what their day-by-day goals will be whilst doing the service learning.Have students complete their service learning / voluntary work in groups or individually.Meet with the students intermittently during the service learning and have student-teacher conferences on how it is progressing. Intervene where needed.Have students come together at the end of the project to reflect on what was learnt and how their understanding of their place in the community has evolved. Discuss possible future involvement and engagement in the community to emphasize that community involvement is an ongoing project.49. Situated LearningA SIT analysis asks students to list aspects of a lesson that were surprising.
BenefitsGets students to take a critical stance and make judgements (particularly for troubling)Is a good way to take stock of students interests in order to create follow-up lessons based on topics the students have already demonstrated concern for.
ChallengesIt is important to strike a balance between giving enough information to make informed guesses and not too much information that the students can deduce the full answer.67. Silent Conversation
ChallengesAn approach predominantly used for young children in Indigenous communities, which is not applicable on a wide scale in Western mass education systems.Requires one-to-one support, which is not often available.
ChallengesCultural sensitivity required. Different cultures ascribe different meanings to non-verbal gestures.
BenefitsIt stimulates students to think about the logical flow-on effects of the things they are learning about (such as in science: gravity, momentum, etc.)Students are asked to think forward rather than simply react in the learning environment.
BenefitsAn effective way of getting students to spend intense time learning about a topic.Helps integrate literacy into your daily activities.
Teachers can stack positive reinforcements so students can take steps to get small, medium and large rewards to encourage students to keep on trying and working hard consistently.
ExamplesA case study of city planning may be an innovative city that has recently been designed.A case study in mathematics may include looking at the mathematics underpinning a famous bridges construction.A case study during a unit of work on refugees might look at the experiences of one real-life refugee.104. Mystery Making
BenefitsEmpowering: when students are given unconditional positive regard, they know that their teacher believes in their ability to constantly do better.Shows Empathy and builds Trust: children come to learn to respect and trust their teacher when they know their teacher is always on their side.
ChallengesEnsure the mystery is not too far outside a students zone of proximal development so that the mystery can be solved.105. Storytelling
Active listening involves using strategies to pay close attention to what someone is saying. Teachers can explicitly model active listening by giving students strategies like pointing their bodies at the speaker, keeping their eyes on the speaker, nodding when they agree, and putting hands up to ask questions or clarification.
Environments have a strong impact on learning. Temperature, lighting, seating plans, colors and posters on the walls can all affect learning.
As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.
save and withdraw information in their mind (create cognitive schemata).Being transparent about a lesson objective is a teaching strategy designed to help students understand the purpose of the lesson. By knowing the objective from the outset,differentlearning preferences).BenefitsThis method is very useful for students with learning disabilities who may require more time to process information. They can rewatch later on and make use of pause,and the teacher translates it in their own words and finishes with Is that what you meant?53. DemonstrationConstrucitivism: Students generate their own knowledge through engagement with their environment rather than having truths told to them by an authority figure.ChallengesMay require a lot of one-to-one support,insisting on respectfully welcoming guests when they enter the classroom,or lightly intervening after the students have struggled for some time.ChallengesRequires a lot of pre-teaching so students have the required skills for these sorts of lessons to work.There are plenty of templates online you could download also.A student-teacher conference is a one-on-one discussion between a student and a teacher to take stock of a students needs. The conference usually involves a discussion of both strengths as well as areas for improvement. The conference should conclude with a list of goals for the teacher and student to mutually strive toward.ChallengesStudents may require resources to do background research to come up with strong points for or against a position.The charts the teacher has put up are stations that students will stop at during the activity.The expert jigsaw method teaching method involves having students split into groups of experts and then topics.A worked example is a completed piece of work that students can look to as models for their own work.One student takes the role of a character from a book,they must discover knowledge for themselves..ChallengesThere is not enough time in traditional school systems for this approach.The difference in abilities between students means some students will get a long way ahead while others remain a long way behind.ExamplesSplit a piece of paper into three columns to help students in this task: one column for connect,meaning students end up not actually sitting where they choose.Often students like to have a spot they can call their own. It helps give students a sense of place and belonging.Sociocultural Theory: Learning is stimulated when students converse with one another. They get to see others viewpoints which may help each student build upon or challenge their existing views.32. Agenda SettingExampleThe teacher models a task before students try it themselves.The teacher provides the student with a visual aid (the scaffold,on a bean bag,Extend,ChallengeBenefitsEngagement: students are more likely to pay attention if they have something to look at.Cognition: some students may benefit from visualizing a concept to help them order ideas in their minds.Visual learning: some learners prefer learning visually than aurally (see: learning styles).BenefitsStories can draw students into a topic through the creation of a sense of excitement and entertainment.Behaviorism: Spaced repetition was invented by behaviorist theorist Ebbinghaus in 1885.Demonstration (rather than modelling) may be necessary when the concept being demonstrated is dangerous or requires expertise.BenefitsMinimizes destructive competitiveness in the classroom which may undermine a collaborative and collegial atmosphere.Requires students to talk to one another which can help them learn from each others perspectives.ChallengesIt is an inefficient use of other students time having them listen to 20 other two-minute presentations when they could be engaging in higher-order learning during that time. Students find it very boring and frustrating to sit through the assessment of other students.ExamplesPause after a question for 10 seconds before discussing the answer.If the class has started getting unsettled,this means presenting students with several stimulus materials that help a student to recall a fact.Critical theory: The barometer could be paired with critical theory if students critique assumptions in society with a focus on the perspectives of marginalized groups.The goals can be for a whole group or individual.See my full article onPlay Based Learning Pros and Cons.3. Project-based learning (PBL)Demonstration involves showing the students a practical example of something that is being learned in class.ChallengesPeer assisted learning is not the same as the students doing the teaching. Students should continue to view each others as partners in learning.Role modelling involves demonstrating the requisite behaviors or ideal way of acting within a learning environment. Role modelling has the intention of positively influencing students into copying the teachers positive learning behaviors.ChallengesMany traditionalist,despite its benefits across age groups.Many people consider that therisks of injury during play-based learningare too high.Gamification involves implementing elements of gameplay in your lessons. This can be as simple as creating a competition out of a mathematics quiz.To extend this activity,social,rewind and slow functions during the revision.Great for when students miss a day so they can catch up.BenefitsStudents are aware of the purpose of the lesson.
Socio-cultural Theory: This approach acknowledges that all students have different social and cultural backgrounds. Therefore, each student requires a personalized learning approach. It realizes that one size fits all will not work because all students are different.
ChallengesEnsure goals are achievable lo that students do not become disillusioned.
ChallengesToo much student freedom may distract students from the learning outcomes.This can be a time-consuming technique as students discover information at their own pace. It can therefore be difficult to implement in education systems that are packed with curriculum outcomes that must be met.
ChallengesIn 2004, a detailed study in Scotland found no evidence or scientific toxic basis for the theory that different people have learning styles. Furthermore, it argued that the 8 styles in the multiple intelligences model were a arbitrarily contrived. Thus, learning styles may simply be learningpreferences.It is unclear whether a teacher should create lessons catered to a students learning preference or help students strengthen their skills in areas students identify as their weaknesses.If students are not given a chance to practice all styles (not just their preferences) they may miss important skills, such as mathematical skills or literacy skills.
not simplywhatis true.Constructivism: Students learn through constructing ideas in their heads rather than being told the facts.42. Reciprocal TeachingExamplesUse Screencasts when teaching a lesson online.Screencasts can also save your work when writing on an Interactive Whitenoard. Revision at a later date will show the steps you took in doing the working out.91. Word WallBenefitsGamification can make boring lessons fun,engineers,Compare,it is also useful for helping students get more depth of knowledge on a topic being taught when you give them all an article or book to read to help them have more knowledge for subsequent parts of the lesson.The teacher first models how to guide group discussions before sending students off to facilitate their own lesson. In groups of four,and collector. All students should be equal discussion contributors,computer software such as excel and programming languages have been used in the classroom as elements of digital gamification.Tip: Bookmark this page so you can come back to it every time you need some new teaching strategies!so be careful to be sensitive.See my full post onCitizenship Education.28. Non-Verbal GesturesWithout stimulus materials,giving them a sense of ownership over the classroom.Can build trust and rapport between the students and the teacher.Helps the teacher take the pulse of the class and understand what they want and need.Formative assessment involves assessing students learning throughout the learning process.
ChallengesStudents need to be explicitly taught group work skills before participating.Some students may become lazy and let others do the work for the whole group.
Social Constructivism / Socio-Cultural Theory: The teacher can spend more time supporting students in a student-centered environment.
ExampleTeacher assigns students a research question, such as What are the key characteristics of mammals?Students work in small groups to come up with an idea for a poster, diagram, or presentation project on the topic.Teacher approves or asks for amendments of students proposed projects.Students are provided a series of lessons over a 2-week period in computer labs and in resource-rich classrooms to complete their project.Teacher checks-in intermittently to ensure standards are upheld and to stimulate students to improve upon their projects.The project concludes with students presenting their project to their parents.4. Authentic Learning
At the end of the lesson, the third column can be filled-in: (L) What I learned in the lesson. This helps students reflect on the lesson to show them that they did actually learn something!
ExamplesIntroduce a complex or controversial issue through a book, video or class discussion.Ask students to stand on an imaginary line from 0 to 10 representing their opinion.Place students into three groups based on their position in the line: agree, unsure and disagree. Have the three groups present their 5 best arguments to the class.65. Cognitive Tools
For each lesson plan I was expected to include clear examples of teaching strategies.
BenefitsStudents are required to provide explanations and justifications for the points they make.Teachers get a more detailed appreciation of studentslevels of knowledge.
BenefitsProvides long-term support to ensure students remember information over a sustained period of time.Perfect for revision and standardized test preparation.
Manipulatives are physical educational toys (or: tools) which are used to support learning. Providing students with physical manipulatives during learning enables them to visualize their learning in a 3D space.
Like a KWL chart, you could do this task by splitting paper into three columns: one for surprising, one for interesting and one for troubling.
Behaviorism: repetition over time helps memory retention.73. Active Listening
ChallengesParents may feel playing games in the classroom is not acceptable. Make sure parents know your reasoning behind using games.Ensure the focus remains on the learning outcomes, not just on having fun.
The feedbacks purpose should be to make impromptu changes during the lesson before it is too late.
Getting students to debate an idea is a great way of getting them to build coherent and logical arguments in defence of a position. It requires them to gather, analyze and sort facts before they present them to an audience.
BenefitsStudents get very close one-to-one interaction with an expert, helping them learn.By learning-by-doing, the student learns not only the theory but also the skills required to complete tasks.
Example (Modelled off the I Do, We Do, You Do approach)The teacher should model the four roles required in front of the whole class, with several volunteers to act as the demonstration group.The teacher assigns groups and the four group roles: questioner, clarifier, summarizer and predictor.When students do the activity in small groups for the first time, explicitly walk the students through the steps. Use a bell or similar audible cue to cycle students through the group work steps.Allow the students to work in independent groups walk around and help groups who are struggling.43. Blended Learning
ChallengesStudents and parents may interpret you devils advocate position as an attempt to teach unsavory views in the classroom.
The teacher poses a question and the pairs are given 60 seconds to discuss the problem. Then, the students from the inner circle rotate one person to the right so they are facing a new partner for the next question.
See my full post onBehaviorism in Education, which has a segment on Banduras modelled instruction approach.10. I Do We Do You Do Method
ChallengesIn large groups, students may fall behind at Steps 2 and 3.
Multiple Intelligences: The lesson can help students who are kinesthetic learners.80. Give One, Get One
ChallengesStimulus materials can be very expensive.Students can get distracted playing with the materials rather than listening to their peers or the teacher.Students need to learn to share materials.
The teacher inserts intentional mistakes into their teaching materials (such as misspellings in their presentations) or their speech in order to:Check students depth of knowledge,Make memorable teaching moments, orKeep students critically engaged.
ExampleHave the student who is presenting their work give their presentation.The students who watched the presentation have 60 seconds to write their thoughts on the topic that was presented.Next, the students have 60 seconds to write down feedback on the presenters work.Then the students have 60 seconds to provide positive affirmation and praise.At the end, have the students share their feedback with the presenter in small groups so that the environment is not so intimidating for the presenter.51. Thumbs Down, Thumbs Up
Use language (including verbs and nouns) from the learning outcome in the assessment task. Furthermore, make sure to provide a criteria for what constitutes pass or fail.
Constructivism: constructivists encourage the use of props so that students can learn by doing and be hands on in their learning.
Humanism: there are elements of unconditional positive regard in this approach (see Carl Rogers).
When the topic groups converge, they should contain one expert on extinction, one expert on bones, one expert on diets and one expert on geographical locations. The topic group will therefore have a broad range of expert knowledge to discuss and share.
Socio-Cultural Theory: students learning through collaborative discussion fits firmly into the socioculturaltheory of education.
BenefitsStudents are provided an appropriate balance of support and freedom.Teacher has ample time to assess students abilities to make adjustments to their pedagogy as they move through the 3 steps (particularly in step 2)
ExamplesLosing points in a class contest.Failing a level in an educational computer game.100. Drop Everything and Read
While gamification involves using elements of gameplay into lessons (points, competitions), game-based learning involves using actual games in a lesson.
BenefitsEncourages students to see their own blind spots or misunderstandings.Helps students to see a diversity of points of view.Improves students debating skills.
Sociocultural Theory: In sociocultural theory, teachers tend to encourage active learning and provide social support.41. Inquiry-Based Learning
Teachers set a benchmark of knowledge 9r ability for students to meet. Then, all assessment in this method is formative, where students are given feedback and as much time as possible to improve before progressing.
Socio-Cultural Theory: Scaffolding was invented by Jerome Bruner (notVygotsky).
Use this list of 107 instructional strategies to fill-in that lesson plan or teaching portfolio with some high quality teaching strategies.
BenefitsStudent-centered: the student is the focus and the teacher is the supporter.Personalized: each student will get unique feedback based on their performance.
BenefitsMoves students from individual thinking to social thinking in a clear process.Helps students to vocalize their own thoughts in small and large groups.Helps students to see other peoples perspectives by encouraging communication, compare and contrast.
ChallengesA visual aid needs an educational purpose. Considerwhyyou are using the visual aid before deciding to use it.
ChallengesIf the language of the curriculum objectives are complex or obtuse, it may just confuse students to use that language in their assessment task.
ChallengesYou may risk having students believe you had made the mistakes intentionally.Students may believe the mistakes are truths and end up believing things that are untrue.
Estimate,or ask students to make predictions themselves.ExamplesFormative assessments can be simple stops to get feedback and ongoing questioning of students.They can also take the form of pop quizzes or student-teacher conferences.37. Summative AssessmentChallengesOften,medium (within a unit of work) and long term (through the year) personal targets for success.BenefitsCase studies help students to see how theories and ideas look in real life. This can also help a student understand the relevance of the topic being studied.A case study may help students make sense of a complex idea by putting it in real concrete terms.Discovery learning involves allowing students maximum freedom within a resource-rich environment to discover answers to challenges. It requires students to build upon prior knowledge and use resources available in the environment to increase their own knowledge.Students follow along with their teacher as an apprentice. By working side-by-side,more investigation can take place to see why there is a discrepancy.ExamplesSeparate students into three ability groups: Advanced,BenefitsA very effective way to introduce new topics.The teacher maintains control when introducing a new idea to ensure students have appropriate understanding and safety knowledge before tying for themselves.Shows that learning can occur passively students can learn simply by watching.ChallengesTeachers must not lose focus on the learning outcomes that must be met. Fun is not the goal,worksheets and manipulatives to help direct and maintain students attention on something physical. With adults,and come up with an agreed list of points on a topic.ChallengesStudents need to know how to be positive in feedback and not be hurtful.ExamplePrint a list of your students with a column for achievements,group table,students connect what theyre learning to their prior knowledge. In step 2,but is different in that inquiry based learning generally involves the teacher setting out a puzzling problem to solve at the start of the lesson.BenefitsHelps to structure the activity,in this instance)